The Moscow Kremlin
is the heart of the city and the country , the place to which all Russian roads lead .
The Kremlin is the oldest part of Moscow and the main tourist attraction . The word “Kremlin” means “fortress”. Moscow Kremlin occupies a triangular plot of land covering the Borovitskiy Hill on the north bank of the Moscow river . The first wooden Kremlin was constructed by Prince Yury Dolgorukiy in 1156. By the 13th century it had become the centre of the Moscow principality.
Moscow princes attracted particular importance to the Kremlin . Thus by natural cause of things in the 1320s the headquarters of the Russian Church was transferred from Vladimir to Moscow . The very first white stone Kremlin was built in the 1360s under prince Dmitriy Donskoy . In the 15 th century , at he order of Tsar Ivan III the Kremlin was surrounded with a new red-brick wall .
By the 15 th century , Moscow had established its global rule over the various Russian principalities and hundred years later it became the capital of a strong State , one of the largest in the world .
Ivan III brought Italian architects to construct new and impressive cathedrals which symbolised the power of the new State . Several cathedrals were built in the late 15th centrum such as : the Assumption Cathedral (1475-1479), the Annunciation Cathedral (1489-1489), the Archangel Cathedral (1505-1508).
The Assumption Cathedral was the principal cathedral of the Russian state , the spiritual and moral centre of the whole Russian land . It was built by Aristotle Fiorovante , as Italian architect in the late 15 th century and replaced a smaller one of the 14 th century . Grand Princes and Tsars were crowned there and the Patriarchs were ordained , and it served as a burial place for nine All-Russia Patriarchs and 18 Metropolitans .
The Archangel Cathedral was also very important ,It took part in all coronations , weddings . And , of course , it was used as a burial place of Tsars . The tombs of all Moscow rulers from the 1320s to the 1690s are there . This Cathedral symbolizes the Glory of Russian warriors.